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Question: What is the prostate, where is it?

The word prostate comes from the Greek word “prostates”. It means standing in front, guard and protector. It is a reproductive gland found only in men. The size of a normal prostate in a healthy man is approximately the size of a large walnut. The weight of the prostate is between 10 and 20 grams. It is located at the base of the urinary bladder and also surrounds the urethra.

Question: What is the function of the prostate, who does not have a prostate?

The prostate gland provides the most suitable conditions for fertilization by protecting the sperm (male germ cell), which is the reproductive cell in men with reproductive function, from environmental factors. By making the environment in which sperm is alkaline, it protects it from the acidic environment in the vagina and causes it to live longer. All men who produce the male hormone Testosterone have a prostate. If there is no testosterone, the prostate cannot develop and remains inactive.

Question: Why does the prostate enlarge?

Prostate, which remains stable after birth; It grows with the change of hormonal structure in adolescence and reaches its normal size at the age of 20. The prostate, which remains in its normal size from 20 to 40 years of age, starts to grow again after 40 years of age. This second growth, which is an undesirable growth, occurs with the contribution of the changing hormonal structure and genetic background.

Question: What are the most common diseases in the prostate?

The most common diseases of the prostate are BPH (benign prostate enlargement), Prostate cancer and Prostatitis (prostate inflammation). These three diseases can cause urinary complaints such as urination at night, frequent urination, burning in urination, inability to empty completely. Rarely, it can cause ejaculation problems or bleeding. BPH (benign prostate enlargement) and prostate cancer are seen in the group over 40 years old, while prostatitis is a disease of younger men.

Question: What is PSA?

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the most commonly used parameter in the diagnosis of prostate diseases. PSA, a protein produced only by the prostate in the body, increases by passing into the blood during prostate diseases. Therefore, any deterioration that may occur in the prostate tissue causes an increase in PSA. These include inflammation of the prostate, prostate cancer, and benign enlargement of the prostate.

Question: Why does the prostate scare?

Prostate diseases, which are the most common disease group in men in the world, are seen mostly as prostate infections at young ages, while they appear more as benign prostatic enlargement (BPH) or prostate cancer (Pca) after the age of 50.

With the rapid aging of the population, we are starting to see BPH and especially prostate cancer more frequently. Prostate cancer is currently the most common cancer in men, and it comes second after lung cancer in terms of death. Therefore, it becomes a very important social and medical problem in the aging society. After the age of 50, almost half of the men start voiding problems that affect their quality of life.

Question: What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer usually does not have any symptoms in the early stages of the disease. In the advanced stages of the disease, symptoms such as painful urination, difficulty urinating, bleeding in the urine may occur. In more advanced stages, symptoms appear according to the organ where the cancer has spread. The most common symptoms of advanced prostate cancer are widespread bone pain. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is only possible with regular check-ups, since it does not show any symptoms in the early period.

Question: What should we do to prevent prostate diseases?

As the world population ages, there will be an increase in the number of people who need treatment for prostate diseases. Benign prostate enlargement is present in 75% of 80-year-old men. If we have urinary tract complaints, we should consult a urologist. If we have a first-degree relative with prostate disease in the family, we should have a prostate check every year after the age of 40, or after the age of 50.

Apart from this, the Mediterranean diet, high consumption of red-colored vegetables and fruits, and adequate vitamin D intake contain protective features for prostate diseases.

Question: What are the new developments in the treatment of prostate diseases?

There are many treatment alternatives in prostate diseases. Lifestyle regulation, if necessary, drug therapy is one of the simplest and primary treatment methods. Apart from this, prostate operations can be performed with methods such as high-energy laser systems (such as Green light), high-frequency sound waves (HIFU) and cryotherapy in the light of new technological developments. In the treatment of prostate cancer, the chances of success have increased considerably with the use of new drugs and especially robotic systems.

Question: What are the known misconceptions?

Today, with the widespread use of the internet, it has become very easy to access information. At the same time, a lot of inaccurate and unproven information causes confusion. I will summarize a few of them; There is no difference in terms of prostate to urinate sitting or standing. No relationship was found between the frequency of sexual intercourse and prostate diseases. Prostate diseases can be seen even without urinary complaints.